domenica 11 settembre 2011

Le tecniche fondamentali del Tae Kwon Do


L’approccio al Taekwondo è semplice e diretto e la sua vera forza deriva dalla sua  apparente semplicità.
A differenza di altri stili marziali, coreani e non, che prevedono l’uso di colpi, il Taekwondo stimola nei suoi praticanti reazioni spontanee e istintive e le tecniche stesse sono adatte per applicazioni pratiche estremamente efficaci.
Il Taekwondo evita di insegnare tecniche elaborate e di difficile interpretazione prevedendo, invece, tecniche di generale validità e sempre efficaci, lasciando le applicazioni elaborate all’intuizione del praticante quando se ne presenti l’occasione.                                       
Il Taekwondo viene spesso paragonato con altre discipline di combattimento, in particolare con il Karate (dal quale, comunque, esso deriva); tuttavia il Taekwondo se ne differenzia per la maggiore utilizzazione delle tecniche di calcio e per le sue posizioni di guardia più alte e dinamiche (lo stile di Karate che richiama questa caratteristiche è solo il Kyokushin).
Chi possiede anche solo una infarinatura di arti marziali si renderà conto che il Taekwondo ha in comune molte tecniche con altri stili di combattimento; ma la differenza c’è e si evidenzia soprattutto nel modo con il quale queste tecniche, e, in special modo, quelle di calcio, vengono eseguite.
Nel Taekwondo, infatti, dopo ogni attacco, si enfatizza il veloce richiamo dell’arto che colpisce (gamba o braccio); il vantaggio del rapido richiamo dell’arto in posizione di caricamento è quello di colpire ripetutamente il bersaglio in rapida sequenza e con grande velocità, con lo stesso arto o con l’altro, se non addirittura insieme. Inoltre i colpi frustati sono talmente veloci, che risulta estremamente difficile, se non impossibile, pararli o schivarli. Evitando di calciare in maniera rigida si eviterà, inoltre, un grande pericolo: che il nostro avversario afferri e neutralizzi l’effetto del colpo.
Il Taekwondo è quindi caratteristico, in tutto il panorama delle Arti Marziali, per la sua vasta e originale gamma di tecniche di calcio; la forza che le gambe sprigionano e la distanza a cui possono arrivare ne fanno uno degli strumenti ideali per la difesa personale, così come viene insegnata nel Taekwondo.
Il grande utilizzo di queste tecniche, inoltre, rende i combattimenti nel Taekwondo, altamente spettacolari e dinamici.
Chiusa questa piccola introduzione, arriviamo adesso al cuore dell’argomento:
il Taekwondo ha ereditato dai suoi stili “genitori”, il karate okinawense, giapponese e coreano, una numerosissima serie di tecniche di combattimento.
Esse comprendono tecniche di attacco (kongkyok kisul), le quali includono: tecniche di pugno (jireughi sul), di calcio (chagi sul), tecniche di perforazione (tzireugi sul), come i colpi portati con la punta delle dita (sonkeut tzireugi), svariate tecniche per colpire con le diverse parti del corpo (chigi sul), come, ad esempio le tecniche di gomito (palkup chigi), e tecniche di difesa (makki sul).
Numerose sono anche le posizioni di attacco e di difesa studiate nel Taekwondo (seoghi sul).
Prima di passare allo studio delle singole tecniche ci occuperemo delle armi naturali del corpo umano così come esse vengono studiate nel Taekwondo.
Comunque, per facilitare lo studio di tutte queste tecniche abbiamo ritenuto opportuno suddividerle in diverse categorie, com’è possibile verificare dalla tabella sottostante:

Le armi naturali del corpo umano
Jumeok                  (il pugno)
Son                       (la mano)
Pal                        (braccia)
Bal                        (piedi)
Dari                      (gambe)
      
      
      
      Posizioni (Soghi)
      Neolpyo seogi
      Moa seogi
      Teuksu Poom Seogi
      
      Tecniche di difesaMakki sul
      
      
       Tecniche di attacco (kongkyok kisul)
      Jireugi sul (tecniche di pugno)
      Chigi sul (tecniche nel colpire con parti del corpo diverse dal pugno o dal piede)
      Tzireugi sul (tecniche di perforazione)
      Chagi sul (tecniche di calcio)
      

N.B. :
1) Il termine “sul”, seguente le varie parole (chagi, jireughi, etc.) vuol dire“tecnica”;
2) Segnaliamo che, accanto al termine utilizzato nel Taekwondo per descrivere la tecnica, abbiamo aggiunto in caratteri corsivi quello utilizzato nel karate coreano tradizionale.




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